The Land National Agency office (BPN) on Sisingamangaraja Jakarta,
January 26, 2006. (TEMPO/Ramdani)
Common Consensus For Land Reform
IN this country, about 1 percent from total Indonesian people have 56 percent state asset, and about 62 percen until 87 percen in land form. “It is structural problem,” said The Head of Land National Agency (BPN) Joyo Winoto said. He added, excessive personal land ownership is constition against and must organized again.
According to regulation (UU 56 PRP 1960), limitation for personal land ownership measuring 7 hectare. According Minister Regulation/The Head BPN, the company have not land ownership right, but land only for bisniss, and used right. Joyo gived example, Hak Guna Usaha (HGU) for one company maximum 20 thousand hectare.
To handle about limited land ownership, land controlled and time used right, Joyo said, needed together consensus. For the next, Indonesia needed special land regulation’s forwarded justice and walfare for people.
The others problems are law, land used, administration process, mapping and etc. ”But, arranged politic and law land is more important.”
He said, land reform also to answer poverty, jobless, and systemic land conflict in Indonesia, and growth food and energy society.
BPN Planned, land reform will began from Blitar, East Java, early next month. In Blitar, The Government will distribution land about 2.151 hectare to 12.001 poor household in 27 village and five subdistrics. The government also to allocate stage land about 8,15 juta hectare for distribution to 17 province and 104 regency.
The others problem is more important are land conflict borned from law problem used land, administration process, mapping problem, and degradation environment.
Land reform belived can answer that problems. But, is not easy to implementation because needed committmen from all stakholders.
Politic support and law arranged must be respon, because Indonesia not have land law to founded solution land problems. Joyo stressed about consensus from all stakeholders to answer land problems.
On the politic prespective, land reform controlled by Presiden Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono. In 2005 years, government has released certification land cost for 410 thousand. In 2006, growth 44 percent, and recorded 591 thousand more land.
In the latest last years, Presiden said will stage allocate land about 8,15 juta hectare to distribution for 17 province dengan 104 regency. That land from the convertion production forest. Moreover, the government also to land about 1,1 million hectare from others source.
Joyo explained, four kinds reforma agriculture was carried out in several countries. The first, carried out radically, where the person’s rich land taken for the people.This approach often failed because needed condition and more wider prerequisite. The second, restitution of land right, where is personally land ownership taken by state through constitution, but given by compensation. ”It is also was not successful most.”
The third, land colonization in a territory. Indonesia did not practise this approach. And then, market based land reform. ”It is mechanism simple, but needed by us to be land market so as to open the land transaction.”
This approach, can develop but can’t answer problems because mayority of Indonesian still poor so that can make land consentration to severa person because they can to buy land.
Joyo said, if four approach not answer Indonesia land problems, Indonesia needed another approach that is arraged consentration asset problems with arranged politic and land law.
Joyo stressed, land was distribution is controlled by state, and more priority for farmer, expesially for farmer whose not have land.
That land can give for collective, personal, and can also give to common company. “If not have big capital, can also to get fatnership with Private enterprise. But, that lands, controlled by state, and can’t sale to others.
Secretaris General The consortium of Land Reform (KPA) Usep Setiawan stressed, land reform not only redistribution dan certification land. Land reform is procces refeat arranged about controlled, and used land, and others resources agriculture for farmer, fisher, and poor community.
Land distribution for poor people must be placed in the framework of comprehensive agriculture reform. Meaning that, the government must parallel prepared various supporting programs that pushed the utilisation of the land productively and in an effective manner for subject reform, especially the poor peasantry.
Certification of the land must carried out after structure arrangement of complete agriculture and placed in the framework reinforced the people’s right. Certification should not be bypass to smooth process of trade in the land, so as the people’s land was still being easy to be free from the grasp.
KPA also considered the object of redistribution of the land must come from lands that were controlled widely and monopolistically, both by the country and private enterprise, both the individual and the company. The land had been occupied and controlled by the poor people preferably immediately was legalised.
In identified absolute object of involvement the organisation farmer so that program of agriculture reform really for small people interests.
The implementation reforma agriculture must included all sectors. Not only land sector, but included also agriculture, forestry, plantation, mining, waters, coast, the small and marine islands, and other sectors.
M. Yamin Panca Setia